Prevalence and risk of sport types to stress urinary incontinence in sportswomen: A cross-sectional study.
The objective of our study was to investigate the prevalence and risk of developing stress urinary incontinence (SUI) in each type of high-intensity sport, and the associated impact on quality of life in sportswomen.
This cross-sectional study was conducted between March and November 2016. The study included 278 sportswomen. The basic inclusion criteria were being nulliparous and engaging in high-intensity physical activity. The exclusion criteria were childbirth, surgical treatment of gynecological and urological illnesses and urinary tract infection. For evaluation were used: The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), The International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire Urinary Incontinence (ICIQ-UISF), the Overactive Bladder Questionnaire (OAB-q), the Urinary Incontinence Quality of Life Scale (I-QOL).
The highest percentage of SUI was found in athletes (23.8%), followed by volleyball players (19.6%). We found that cumulative metabolic equivalent (MET) did not affect SUI, but the type of sport did. The risk of SUI was highest in volleyball sportswomen (odds ratio[OR] = 2.16,95% confidence interval[CI] = 0.96-4.89, P < 0.05) and athletes (OR = 2.56,95%CI = 0.87-7.51, P = 0.08). As assessed by the I- QOL, SUI in people who participated in fitness and athletics (e.g., basketball, volleyball and handball) had a negative impact on quality of life including behavior, psychosocial impacts and social embarrassment score.
Volleyball players have a 116% chance of getting SUI compared to women who play other types of sports that were analyzed as part of this study. Healthcare professionals should inform the population of sportswomen with risk factors for SUI in order to implement preventive physiotherapy for strengthening pelvic floor muscles.